Current page last modified at: 07-Dec-2017 12:32:44

Building with (Py)Gradle

Brief report on interacting and working with Gradle within the project.

Table of Contents



Installing on Ubuntu:

  • curl -s | bash - install sdk
  • sdk install gradle 3.5 - install gradle 3.5 (or any version 3.0+ or 4.0+)
  • check the installed version gradle -v
  • switching between versions sdk use gradle 4.0

Installing on MacOS (assuming homebrew is installed):

  • brew install gradle
  • check the installed version gradle -v

Setting up

There are two ways to work with Gradle:

  • install it on your machine - see Installation
  • provide a wrapper so that others can also work with the same version or we can distribute the project for others that do no have Gradle installed, or need to work with a specific version.

There are two ways to create a Gradle Wrapper (both require Gradle installed):

  • use command gradle wrapper --gradle-version 3.5 (last value is the version of Gradle set for the wrapper);
  • in the build.gradle file create a wrapper task (see below) and use command gradle wrapper
task wrapper(type: Wrapper) {
   gradleVersion = '3.5'

Python + Gradle = ♥️

Setting up

Setting up steps overview - all these steps are detailed in this section:

  1. acquire Gradle and (optional) create a Gradle wrapper - see Installation;
  2. create PyPi repository - see Creating a PyPi repository;
  3. set up Python project structure;
  4. create build.gradle file with appropriate PyGradle plugin;
  5. generate project

One of the best way to work with Gradle in Python is using PyGradle. It is also recommended using Gradle version 3.+ .

PyGradle comes with several plugins available (for specific details refer to PyGradle github repository).

Plugin Name Used When
com.linkedin.python Base Python Plugin
com.linkedin.python-sdist Developing Libraries
com.linkedin.python-web-app Developing Deployable Applications
com.linkedin.python-cli Developing Command Line Applications
com.linkedin.python-flyer Developing Flyer (Flask + Ember) Applications
com.linkedin.python-pex Developing Pex Applications

PyGradle depends on Ivy metadata to build a dependency graph, thus one cannot use pypi directly. For this reason it is recommended to build a local pypi repository using the pivy-importer; for the latest pivy-importer jre see pivy-importer jfrog bintray.

The plugins can be added from Gradle plugins repository (

plugins {
  id "com.linkedin.python-cli" version "0.6.1"

or by jcenter

buildscript {
    repositories {
    dependencies {
        classpath group: 'com.linkedin.pygradle', name: 'pygradle-plugin', version: '0.6.1'
apply plugin: 'com.linkedin.python-cli'

Creating a PyPi repository

There are three methods to provide a PyPi repository:

  • local - that can be built following the instructions: Requires the pivy repository locally check build.gradle

    • download from
    • run as below

      java -jar ~/Software/pivy-importer-0.6.1-all.jar --repo /home/user/repository \
        virtualenv:15.0.1 \
        pip:7.1.2 \
        gunicorn:19.6.0 \
        lxml:3.6.4 rdflib:4.2.1 \
        rdflib-jsonld:0.4.0  \
        PyMySQL:0.7.9 \
        setuptools:19.1.1 \
        pytest:2.9.1 \
        pytest-cov:2.2.1 \
        pytest-xdist:1.14 \
        setuptools:32.1.0 \
        pytest-html:1.12.0  \
        --replace alabaster:0.7=alabaster:0.7.1, \
        pytz:0a=pytz:2016.4, \
        Babel:0.8=Babel:1.0, \
        sphinx_rtd_theme:0.1=sphinx_rtd_theme:0.1.1, \
        idna:2.0.0=idna:2.1, \
        chardet:2.2=chardet:2.3, \
  • hosted: one can build his own hosted PyPi repo for PyGradle using a Docker image - build your own repository using

  • pypi server as detailed here PyGradle pipConfig

       pipConfig = ['global':['index-url': 'https://<login>:<password>', 'timeout': '60']]

Python project setup

For a full example and detailed description visit: .

Standard python project tree - Note the lack of a, more on this in a moment:

├── setup.cfg
├── src
│   └── project
│       └──
│       └──
└── test

Create a build.gradle file. An example of a such a file is bellow with some specific options.

plugins {
  id "com.linkedin.python-cli" version "0.6.1"

python {
  // force to use a specific version for a plugin
  forceVersion('pypi', 'pip', '7.1.2')
  // set the test directory to be used by py.test
  // by default it is test directory.
  testDir = file('tests')

  // Use a specific python version if it is available in the PATH it
  // will use it
  details.prependExecutableDirectory(new File('/usr/bin/python3.4'))
  // or details.appendExecutableDirectory(new File('/usr/bin/python3.4'))
  details.pythonVersion = '3.4'

// define an explicit installation sequence for the dependencies.
project.tasks.findByName('installPythonRequirements').sorted = false

dependencies {
    python 'pypi:requests:2.9.1'
    test 'pypi:mock:1.0.1'

repositories {
  // provided by LinkedIn as an example

   // using a local repository
     name 'pypi-local'
     url "/home/user/pivy"
     layout 'pattern' , {
       artifact '[organisation]/[module]/[revision]/[artifact]-[revision](-[classifier]).[ext]'
       ivy '[organisation]/[module]/[revision]/[module]-[revision].ivy'

Create the using gradle generateSetupPy

The in this example was created using the above task, by default the "setup" section at the bottom is commented out, so please look it over before continuing. One would want to un-comment the whole section at the bottom of the One would also like to add a setup.cfg e.g.:

ignore = E121,E123,E226,W292
max-line-length = 160

Excluding depenencies

If there are issues with dependencies in your project e.g. : one could exclude the dependency as follows:

dependencies {
    python ('pypi:connexion:1.0.129') {
        exclude module: 'functools32'

Building and Running Tasks

There are two ways to run the tasks and build either with gradle or ./gradlew commands. In the working directory where build.gradle file is available one can make use of the following commands.

Building an running tasks is the same as the Gradle, however here are some examples customised to PyGradle:


  • clean: gradle clean
  • build: gradle build
  • other tasks: gradle :runTests (see below how to add this task) or gradle pytest
  • exclude tasks: gradle build -x pytest
  • do all: gradle clean build -x pytest
  • see tasks: gradle tasks --all and dependencies gradle dependencies (previous to Gradle 3.+ all the tasks could be seen simply with gradle tasks with 3.+ the --all parameter was added to limit the number of tasks shown)
  • see test coverage gradle pytest coverage it will generate a html report in build/coverage/htmlcov

In order to generate a HTML test report one could use pytest-html dependency and creating a Gradle task for that:

// generate Tests report via a script.
task runTests(type:Exec) {
  workingDir '.'
  // Create the output folder
  doFirst {

  commandLine './'

where contains the command to activate the virtualenv created by PyGradle and run the tests.

#! /bin/bash
command -v source >/dev/null 2>&1 || {
  echo "I require source but it's not installed.  Aborting." >&2; exit 1;
source activate
py.test tests --html=build/test-report/index.html --self-contained-html

Example PyGradle Projects

Besides the examples provided we provide two additional ones:


Getting started:

Little as there is the documentation for PyGradle is somewhat useful:

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